Scientific publications

iSDA staff have published a number of relevant articles in scientific journals. Selected articles form the past 10 years can be viewed here.

Shepherd KD and Walsh MG. (2002) Development of reflectance spectral libraries for characterization of soil properties. Soil Science Society of America Journal 66:988-998. doi:10.2136/sssaj2002.9880

Shepherd KD, Palm CA, Gachengo CN and Vanlauwe B (2003) Rapid characterization of organic resource quality for soil and livestock management in tropical agroecosystems using near infrared spectroscopy. Agronomy Journal 95:1314-1322. doi:10.2134/agronj2003.1314

Cohen MJ, Shepherd KD, and Walsh MG (2004). Improved application of the Universal Soil Loss Equation in tropical watersheds. Geoderma 124:235-252. doi:10.1016/j.geoderma.2004.05.003

Shepherd, KD, Vanlauwe B, Gachengo CN Palm CA (2005) Decomposition and mineralization of organic residues predicted using near infrared spectroscopy. Plant and Soil 277:315-333.

Vanlauwe B, Gachengo C, Shepherd KD, Barrios E, Cadisch G, Palm CA (2005) Validation of a resource quality-based conceptual framework for organic matter management. Soil Science Society of America Journal 69:1135–1145.

Tittonell P, Vanlauwe B, Leffelaar PA , Shepherd KD, and Giller KE. 2005. Exploring diversity in soil fertility management of smallholder farms in western Kenya II. Within-farm variability in resource allocation, nutrient flows and soil fertility status. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 110 166–184.

Brown D, Shepherd KD, Walsh MG (2006). Global soil characterization using a VNIR diffuse reflectance library and boosted regression trees. Geoderma 132:273–290. doi:10.1016/j.geoderma.2005.04.025

Vågen T-Gunnar, Walsh, MG and Shepherd KD (2006) Stable carbon isotopes for characterisation of past land use and trends in soil carbon following deforestation and land use change in the highlands of Madagascar. Geoderma 135: 133–139. doi:10.1016/j.geoderma.2005.11.012

Vågen T-Gunnar, Shepherd KD and Walsh MG (2006) Sensing landscape level change in soil quality following deforestation and conversion in the highlands of Madagascar using Vis-NIR spectroscopy. Geoderma 133: 281–294. doi:10.1016/j.geoderma.2005.07.014

Cohen MJ, Brown MT and Shepherd KD (2006) Estimating the environmental costs of soil erosion at multiple scales in Kenya using emergy synthesis. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 114:249–269.

Mutuo PK, Shepherd KD, Albrecht A, and Cadisch G (2006) Prediction of Carbon Mineralization Rates from Different Soil Physical Fractions Using Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 38:1658–1664. doi:10.1016/j.soilbio.2005.11.020

Waithaka MM. Thornton PK, Herrero M, Shepherd KD, Ndiwa, NN (2006) Bio-economic evaluation of farmers’ perceptions of viable farms in Western Kenya. Agricultural Systems 90: 243–271

Shepherd KD and Walsh MG (2007) Infrared spectroscopy—enabling an evidence-based diagnostic surveillance approach to agricultural and environmental management in developing countries. Journal of Near Infrared Spectroscopy 15: 1-19.

Janik LJ, Skjemstad JO, Shepherd KD and Spouncer LR (2007) The prediction of soil carbon fractions using mid-infrared-partial least square analysis. Journal of Australian Soil Research 45(2): 73–81.

Awiti AO, Walsh MG, Shepherd KD and Kinyamario J. 2008. Soil condition classification using infrared spectroscopy: a proposition for assessment of soil condition along a tropical forest-cropland chronosequence. Geoderma 143: 73-84. doi:10.1016/j.geoderma.2007.08.021

Tittonell P, Shepherd, KD, Vanlauwe B, Giller KE. 2008. Unravelling the effects of soil and crop management on maize productivity in smallholder agricultural systems of western Kenya–An application of classification and regression tree analysis. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 123, Issues (1-3): 137-150. DOI: 10.1016/j.agee.2007.05.005.

deGraffenreid JB and Shepherd KD. 2009. Rapid and Effective Soil Erosion Modeling in a Western Kenya Watershed using Near Infrared Reflectance, Classification Tree Analysis and 137Cesium. Geoderma 154: 93 - 100. doi:10.1016/j.geoderma.2009.10.001.

Sanchez, P.A.; Ahamed, S.; Carré, F.; Hartemink, A.E.; Hempel, J.; Huising, J.; Lagacherie, P.; McBratney, A.B.; McKenzie, N.J.; Mendonça-Santos, L.; Minasny, B.; Montanarella, L.; Okoth, P.; Palm, C.A.; Sachs, J.D.; Shepherd, K.D.; Vågen, T-G.; Vanlauwe, B.; Walsh, M.G.; Winowiecki, L.A.; Zhang, G-L. 2009. Digital soil map of the world. Science 325: 680-681. DOI: 10.1126/science.1175084

Vanlauwe B, BationoA, ChianuJ, Giller KE, Merckx R, MokwunyeU, Ohiokpehai O, Pypers P, Tabo R, Shepherd K, Smaling E, Woomer PL, and Sanginga N. 2010. Integrated soil fertility management: Operational definition and consequences for implementation and dissemination. Outlook on Agriculture 39(1): 17–24.

Tittonell P, Muriuki A, Shepherd KD, Mugendi D, Kaizzi KC, Okeyo J, Verchot L, Coe R, Vanlauwe B. 2010. The diversity of rural livelihoods and their influence on soil fertility in agricultural systems of East Africa – A typology of smallholder farms. Agricultural Systems 103: 83–97

Sjögren H, Shepherd, KD and Karlsson, A. 2010. Effects of improved fallow with Sesbania sesban on maize productivity and Striga hermonthica infestation in Western Kenya. Journal of Forestry Research 21(3): 379−386. DOI 10.1007/s11676-010-0085-0.

Terhoeven-Urselmans T, Vagen T-G, Spaargaren O, Shepherd KD. 2010. Prediction of soil fertility properties from a globally distributed soil mid-infrared spectral library. Soil Sci. Soc. Am. J. 74:1792–1799. doi:10.2136/sssaj2002.9880.

Verchot, L.V., Dutaur, L., Shepherd, K.D., Albrecht, A. 2011. Organic matter stabilization in soil aggregates: Understanding the biogeochemical mechanisms that determine the fate of carbon inputs in soils. Geoderma 161: 182–193. doi:10.1016/j.geoderma.2010.12.017.

Muhati SI, Shepherd KD, Gachene CK, Mburu MW, Jones R, Kironchi GO and Sila A (2011). Diagnosis of Soil Nutrient Constraints in Small-scale Groundnut (Arachis hyopaea L.) Production Systems of Western Kenya Using Infrared Spectroscopy. Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology A1: 111–127.

Kamau-Rewe, M., Rasche, F., Cobo, J.G., Dercon, G., Shepherd, K.D., Cadisch, G. 2011. Generic prediction of soil organic carbon in Alfisols using diffuse reflectance Fourier transformed mid-infrared spectroscopy. Soil Science Society of America Journal 75: 2358–2360.

Kodikara G., Woldai T., van Ruitenbeek, F., Kuriac, Z., van der Meer, F., Shepherd, K., van Hummel, J. 2011. Spectral remote sensing of evaporate minerals and associated sediments in Lake Magadi area, Kenya. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 14: 22–32.

King Liebenow D., Cohen M.J., Gumbricht, T., Shepherd, K.D., Shepherd, G. 2012. Do ecosystem services influence household wealth in rural Mali? Ecological Economics 82: 33–44.

Towett, E.K., Alex, M., Shepherd, K.D., Polreich, S., Aynekulu, E., Maass, B.L. 2013. Applicability of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) for determination of crude protein content in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) leaves. Food Science & Nutrition 1: 45–53. doi: 10.1002/fsn3.7.

Herrick JE Urama KC, Karl JW, Boos J, Johnson MV, Shepherd KD et al. 2013. The global Land-Potential Knowledge System (LandPKS): Supporting evidence-based, site-specific land use and management through cloud computing, mobile applications, and crowdsourcing. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 68(1): 5A – 12A. doi:10.2489/jswc.68.1.5A.

Tittonell, P., Muriuki, A., Klapwijk, C.J., Shepherd, K.D., Coe, R., Vanlauwe, B. 2013. Soil Heterogeneity and Soil Fertility Gradients in Smallholder Agricultural Systems of the East African Highlands. Soil Science Society of America Journal 2013 77: 525-538


Olale, K., Yenesew, A., Jamnadass, R., Sila, A., Aynekulu, E., Kuyah, S., Shepherd, K. 2013 Limitations to use of infrared spectroscopy for rapid determination of carbon-nitrogen and wood density for tropical species. Advances in Analytical Chemistry 3: 21–28. DOI: 10.5923/j.aac.20130303.01.

Towett, E.K., Shepherd, K.D, Cadisch, G. 2013. Quantification of total element concentrations in soils using total X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (TXRF). Science of the Total Environment 463–464: 374–388

Rosenstock,T.S., Mpanda, M., Rioux J., Aynekulua, E., Kimaro, A.A., Neufeldt, H., Shepherd. K.D., Luedeling. E. 2014. Targeting conservation agriculture in the context of livelihoods and landscapes. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 187: 47–51

Waruru BK, Shepherd KD, Ndegwa GM, Kamoni PT, Sila AM. 2014. Rapid estimation of soil engineering properties using diffuse reflectance near infrared spectroscopy. Biosystems Engineering 121:177-185. doi:10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2014.03.003

Nocita M, Stevens A, van Wesemael B, Brown DJ, Shepherd KD, Towett, E, Vargas R, Montanarella L. 2014. Soil spectroscopy: an opportunity to be seized. Global Change Biology. Article first published online. 21 Jun 2014, DOI: 10.1111/gcb.12632

Shepherd, K.D., Shepherd, G. Walsh, M.G. (2015). Land health surveillance and response: a framework for evidence-informed land management. Agricultural Systems 132: 93–106. doi:10.1016/j.agsy.2014.09.002.

Luedeling, E., Oord, A., Kiteme, B., Ogalleh, S., Malesu, M., Shepherd, K. D., De Leeuw, J. (2015). Fresh groundwater for Wajir – ex-ante assessment of uncertain benefits for multiple stakeholders in a water supply project in Northern Kenya. Frontiers in Environmental Science 3: 16. doi: 10.3389/fenvs.2015.00016

Hengl T, Heuvelink GBM, Kempen B, Leenaars JGB, Walsh MG, Shepherd KD, et al. (2015) Mapping Soil Properties of Africa at 250 m Resolution: Random Forests Significantly Improve Current Predictions. PLoS ONE 10(6): e0125814. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0125814

Dataset: via


Guerena, D, Todd Walter, M., Enders, A., Neufeldt, H., Odiwour, H., Biwott, H., Recha, J., Shepherd, K., Barrios, E., Wurster, C. (2015). Landscape-scale movement of terrestrial pyrogenic carbon following land-use change in headwaters of the White Nile watershed of East Africa. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 29,1911–1928.

Shepherd K, Hubbard D, Fenton N, Claxton K, Luedeling E, De Leeuw J, 2015. Development goals should enable decision-making. Nature 523, 152-154. DOI: 10.1038/523152a.

Tittonell, P., Dis, R. van, Vanlauwe,B. and Shepherd, K.D. (2015). Managing Soil Heterogeneity in Smallholder African Landscapes Requires a New Form of Precision Agriculture. Pp 199 – 224 in Lal R and Stewart BA. Soil Specific Farming: Precision Agriculture. Advances in Soil Science, CRC Press.

Towett, E.K., Shepherd, K.D., Sila, A., Aynekulu, E., Cadisch, G. 2015. Mid-infrared and total x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy complementarity for assessment of soil properties. Soil Science Society of America Journal 79: 1375-1385. doi:10.2136/sssaj2014.11.0458.

Towett, E.K., Shepherd, K.D., Tondoh, J.E., Winowiecki, L.A., Lulseged, T., Nyambura, M., Sila, A., Vagen T-G., and Cadisch, G. 2015. Total elemental composition of soils in Sub-Saharan Africa and relationship with soil forming factors. Geoderma Regional 5: 157–168

Nocita, M., Stevens, A. van Wesemael, B., Aitkenhead, M., Bachmann, M., Barthes, B., Ben Dor, E., Brown, D.J., Clairotte, M., Csorba, A., Dardenne, P., Demattê, J.A.M., Genot, V., Guerrero, C., Knadel, M., Montanarella, L., Noon, C., Ramirez-Lopez, L., Robertson, J., Sakai, H., Soriano-Disla, J.M., Shepherd, K.D., Stenberg, B., Towett, E.K, Vargas, R., Wetterlind, J. 2015. Soil Spectroscopy: An Alternative to Wet Chemistry for Soil Monitoring. Advances in Agronomy 132: 139 – 159.

Towett, E.K., Drake, L., Shepherd, K.D. 2015. Plant elemental composition and portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) spectroscopy: Quantification under different analytical parameters. X-Ray Spectrometry 45: 117–124. DOI 10.1002/xrs.2678.

Viscarra Rossel, R.A., Behrens, T., Ben-Dor, E., Brown, D.J., Demattê J.A.M., Shepherd, K.D., Shi, Z., Stenberg, B., Stevens, A., Adamchuk, V., Aïchi, H., Barthès, B.G., Bartholomeus, H.M., Bayer, A.D., Bernoux, M., Böttcher, K., Brodský, L., Du, C.W., Chappell, A., Fouad, Y., Genot, V., Gomez, C., Grunwald, S., Gubler, A., Guerrero, C., Hedley, M. Knadel, H.J.M. Morrás, M. Nocita, L. Ramirez-Lopez, P. Roudier, E.M. Rufasto Campos, C.B., Sanborn, P., Sellitto, V.M., Sudduth, K.A., Rawlins, B.G,. Walter, C., Winowiecki, L.A., Hong, S.Y., Ji, W. 2016. A global spectral library to characterize the world’s soil. Earth-Science Reviews 155: 198-230.

Herrick J. E., Beh, A., Barrios, E., Bouvier, I., Coetzee, M., Dent, D., Elias, E., Hengl, T., Karl, J.W., Liniger, H., Matuszak, J., Ne, J.C., Ndungu, L.W., Obersteiner, M., Shepherd, K.D., Urama, K.C., van den Bosch, R. and Webb, N.P. 2016. The Land-Potential Knowledge System (LandPKS): mobile apps and collaboration for optimizing climate change investments. Ecosystem Health and Sustainability 2(3):e01209. doi: 10.1002/ehs2.1209

Yet, B., Constantinou, A., Fenton, N., Neil, M., Luedeling, E. and Shepherd, K. 2016. A Bayesian Network Framework for Project Cost, Benefit and Risk Analysis with an Agricultural Development Case Study. Expert Systems With Applications 60: 141–155.


Takoutsing, B., Weber, J., Aynekulu, E., Rodríguez Martín, J.A., Shepherd, K., Sila, A., Tchoundjeu, Z., and Diby, L. Assessment of soil health indicators for sustainable production of maize in smallholder farming systems in the highlands of Cameroon, Geoderma 276: 64-73.

Sila A M, Pokhariyal G P, Shepherd K D. 2016. Evaluating the utility of mid-infrared spectral subspaces for predicting soil properties . Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems 153: 92–105.

Waruru BK, Shepherd KD, Ndegwa GM and Sila, AM. 2016. Estimation of wet aggregation indices using soil properties and diffuse reflectance near infrared spectroscopy: An application of classification and regression tree analysis. Biosystems Engineering 152: 148-164.

Luedeling E and Shepherd KD. 2016. Decision-Focused Agricultural Research. The Solutions Journal 7: 46-54.

Kimaro AA, Mpanda M, Rioux J, Aynekulu E, Shaba S, Thiong’o M, Mutuo P, Abwanda S, Shepherd K, Neufeldt H, Rosenstock TS (2016). Is conservation agriculture ‘climate-smart’ for maize farmers in the highlands of Tanzania? Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 105: 217–228.

Maina DM, Ndirangu DM, Mangala MM, Boman J, Shepherd K, Gatari MJ. (2016). Environmental implications of high metal content in soils of a titanium mining zone in Kenya. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23:21431–21440. DOI 10.1007/s11356-016-7249-1.

Sila AM, Pokhariyal GP, Shepherd KD (2017). Evaluating regression-kriging for mid-infrared spectroscopy prediction of soil properties in western Kenya. Geoderma Regional Volume 10: 39-47.

DOI 10.1016/j.geodrs.2017.04.003

Takoutsing B, Martín JAG, Weber JC, Shepherd K, Sila A, Tondoh J. (2017) Landscape approach to assess key soil functional properties in the highlands of Cameroon: Repercussions of spatial relationships for land management interventions, Journal of Geochemical Exploration, 178: 35-44

Rosenstock TS, Lamanna C, Chesterman S, Hammond J, Kadiyala S, Luedeling E, Shepherd K, DeRenzi B, van Wijk MT. 2017. When less is more: innovations for tracking progress toward global targets. Current Opinion in Environmental Sustainability 26–27: 54-61.

Hengl T, Leenaars JGB, Shepherd KD, Walsh MG, Heuvelink GBM, Mamo T, Tilahun H, Berkhout E, Cooper M, Fegraus E, Wheeler I, Kwabena NA. 2017. Soil nutrient maps of Sub-Saharan Africa: assessment of soil nutrient content at 250 m spatial resolution using machine learning. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 109:77–102.

DOI 10.1007/s10705-017-9870-x

Olale K, Walyambillah W, Mohammed SA, Sila A, Shepherd K. Application of DRIFT-FTIR spectroscopy for quantitative prediction of simple sugars in two local and two Floridian mango (Mangifera indica L.) cultivars in Kenya. J. Anal. Sci. Technol. 2017;8(1):21.

Whitney, C. W., Lanzanova, D., Muchiri, C., Shepherd, K. D., Rosenstock, T. S., Krawinkel, M., Tabuti, J. R. S., & Luedeling, E. (2018). Probabilistic Decision Tools for Determining Impacts of Agricultural Development Policy on Household Nutrition, Earth’s Future, 6, 359–372.

Wafula J, Karimjee Y, Tamba Y, Malava G, Muchiri C, Koech G, De Leeuw J, Nyongesa J, Shepherd K and Luedeling E. (2018). Probabilistic assessment of investment options in honey value chains in Lamu County, Kenya. Frontiers in Applied Mathematics and Statistics 4: 6-11.

Butler BM, Sila AM, Shepherd KD, Nyambura M, Gilmore CJ, Kourkoumelis N, Hillier S. (2019). Pre-treatment of soil X-ray powder diffraction data for cluster analysis. Geoderma 337: 413-424.

Lanzanova D, Whitney C, Shepherd K, Luedeling E (2019). Improving development efficiency through decision analysis: Reservoir protection in Burkina Faso. _Environmental Modelling & Software:_115: 164-175.

Ichami, SM, Shepherd KD, Sila AM, Stoorvogel JJ and Hoffland E. (2019). Fertilizer response and nitrogen use efficiency in African smallholder maize farms. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 113: 1–19.

DOI 10.1007/s10705-018-9958-y

Johnson, J.M., Vandamme, E., Senthilkumard, K., Sila, A., and Shepherd, K.D., Saito, K. 2019. Near-infrared, mid-infrared or combined diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for assessing soil fertility in rice fields in sub-Saharan Africa. Geoderma 354: 113840.

Keskinena, R., Nyambura, M.,1 Heikkinen, J., Sila, A., Eurola, M., Towett, E., Shepherd, K., Esala, M. (2019). Readily available concentrations of selected micronutrients and harmful metals in soils of Sub-Saharan Africa. Geoderma 347: 203 – 209.

Rosenstock, T.S., Dawson, I., Aynekulu, E., Chomba, S., Degrande, A., Fornace, K., Jamnadas, R., Kimaro, A., Kindt, R., Lamanna, C., Malesu, M., Mausch, K., McMullin, S., Murage, P., Namoi, N., Njenga, M., Nyoka, I., Valencia, A.M.P., Sola, P., Shepherd, K., and Steward, P. (2019). A Planetary Health Perspective on Agroforestry in Sub-Saharan Africa. One Earth 1: 330-344.

Luedeling, E., Börner, J., Amelung, W., Schiffers, K., Shepherd, K, and Rosenstock, T. (2019). Forest restoration: Overlooked constraints. Science 366 (6463): 315.

DOI: 10.1126/science.aay7988

Butler, B.M., Sila, A.M., Shepherd, K.D., Nyambura, M., Gilmore, C.J., Kourkoumelis, N., Hillier, S. (2019). Pre-treatment of soil X-ray powder diffraction data for cluster analysis. Geoderma 337: 413–424.

Kwesiga, J., Grotelüschen, K., Senthilkumar, K., Neuhoff, D., Döring, T.F., Becker, M. (2019): Site and Management Effects on Grain Yield and Yield Variability of Rainfed Lowland Rice in the Kilombero Floodplain of Tanzania. Agronomy 9(10):632.

Fischer, S., Hilger, T., Piepho, H-P., Jordan, I., Karungi, J. Towett, E., Shepherd, K., Cadisch, G. (2020). Soil and farm management effects on yield and nutrient concentrations of food crops in East Africa. Science of the Total Environment 716: 137078.

McGonigle DF, Nodari GR, Phillips R, Aynekulu E, Estrada Carmona N, Jones S, Koziell I, Luedeling E, Remans R, Shepherd K, Wiberg D, Whitney C and Zhang W (2020). A Knowledge Brokering Framework for Integrated Landscape Management. Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems 4:13.

Shepherd KD, Whitney C, Luedeling E (2019). A decision analysis framework for development planning and performance measurement: application to land restoration investments. Land Degradation & Development (accepted subject to revision).

Yet, B., Lamanna, C., Shepherd, K., Rosenstock, T. (2020). Project Evaluation using Bayesian Networks (PEBN): Prioritizing agricultural development investments under climatic and socio-political risk. PLoS ONE 15(6): e0234213. pone.0234213


Butler, B.M., Palarea-Albaladejo, J., Shepherd, K.D., Nyambura, K.M., Towett, E.K., Sila, A.M., Hillier, S. (2020). Mineral–nutrient relationships in African soils assessed using cluster analysis of X-ray powder diffraction patterns and compositional methods. Geoderma 375 (2020) 114474.

Prout, J.M., Shepherd, K.D. McGrath, S.P., Kirk, G.J.D., Haefele, S.M. (2020).What is a good level of soil organic matter? An index based on organic carbon to clay ratio. European Journal of Soil Science 2020:1-11.

Towett, E.K., Drake, L.B., Acquah, G.E., Haefele, S.M., McGrath, S.P., Shepherd, K.D. (2020). Comprehensive nutrient analysis in agricultural organic amendments through non-destructive assays using machine learning. PLoS ONE 15(12): e0242821. pone.0242821

Kwesiga, J., Grotelüschen, K., Senthilkumar, K., Neuhoff, D., Döring, T.F., Becker, M. (2020). Rice Yield Gaps in Smallholder Systems of the Kilombero Floodplain in Tanzania. Agronomy 10(8): 1135.

Kwesiga, J., Grotelüschen, K., Senthilkumar, K., Neuhoff, D., Döring, T.F., Becker, M. (2020). Effect of organic amendments on the productivity of rainfed lowland rice in the Kilombero floodplain of Tanzania. Agronomy 10(9): 1280.

Sarr, A., Bodian, A., Gbedevi, K. M., Ndir, K. N., Ajewole, O. O., Gueye, B., Foncéka, D., Diop, E. A. M. C., Diop, B. M., Cissé, N. and Diouf, D. (2020). Genetic diversity and population structure analyses of wild relatives and cultivated cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) from Senegal using simple sequence repeat markers. Plant Molecular Biology Reporter 39: 112–124.

von Fromm,S.F., Hoyt, A.M., Acquah, G.E., Aynekulu, E., Berhe, A.A., Haefele, S.M., Lange, M., McGrath, S.P., Shepherd, K.D., Sila, A.M., Six, J., Towett, E.K., Trumbore, S.E.,Vågen, T-G., Weullow, E., Winowiecki, L.A., Doetter, S. (2021).Continental-scale controls on soil organic carbon across sub-Saharan Africa. SOIL, 7, 305–332.

Hengl, T., Miller, M., Krizan, J., Shepherd, K., Sila, A., Kilibarda, M., … & Crouch, J. (2021). African Soil Properties and Nutrients Mapped at 30–m Spatial Resolution usingTwo-scale Ensemble Machine Learning. Sci Rep 11, 6130 (2021).

Johnson, J-M, Sila, A., Senthilkumar, K., Shepherd, K.D., Saito, K. 2021. Application of infrared spectroscopy for estimation of concentrations of macro- and micronutrients in rice in sub-Saharan Africa. Field Crops Research 270 (2021) 108222

Betemariam, E. Sileshi, G.W., Rosenstock, T.S., van Noordwijk, M., Tsegaye D., Koala, J., Sawadogo, L., Milne, E., de Leeuw J., and Shepherd K. (2021). No changes in soil organic carbon and nitrogen following long-term prescribed burning and livestock exclusion in the Sudan- savanna woodlands of Burkina Faso. _Basic & Applied Ecology_56: 165-175.

Summerauer, L., Baumann, P., Ramirez-Lopez, L., …, Shepherd, K., … Six, J. 2021. The central African soil spectral library: a new soil infrared repository and a geographical prediction analysis. SOIL, 7, 693–715.

Baumann, P., Lee, J., Frossard, E., … Shepherd, K., … Six, J. 2021. Estimation of soil properties with mid-infrared soil spectroscopy across yam production landscapes in West Africa. SOIL (in press)

Hati, K.M. Sinha, N., …, Shepherd, K, Patra, A.K., Chaudhari, S.K. 2022. Mid-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy for Estimation of Soil Properties of Alfisols from Eastern India. Sustainability 14: 4883.

von Fromm, S.F., Hoyt, A.M., Acquah, G.E., Aynekulu, E., Berhe, A.A., Haefele, S.M., Lange, M., McGrath, S.P., Shepherd, K.D., Sila, A.M., Six, J., Towett, E.K., Trumbore, S.E.,Vågen, T-G., Weullow, E., Winowiecki, L.A., Doetter, S. (2021).Continental-scale controls on soil organic carbon across sub-Saharan Africa. SOIL, 7,305–332.

Hengl, T., Miller, M.A.E., Križan, J. et al. (2021). African soil properties and nutrients mapped at 30 m spatial resolution using two-scale ensemble machine learning. Scientific _Rep__orts_11, 6130.

Summerauer, l. Baumann, P, Ramirez-Lopez L., …. Shepherd K., …. Six, J. 2021. The central African soil spectral library: a new soil infrared repository and a geographical prediction analysis. SOIL 7, 693–715.

Neuhoff, D., Kwesiga, J. (2021). Para-organic Intensification of Future Farming as alternative concept to reactor-based staple food production in Africa. Organic Agriculture 11: 209–215.

Höllermann, B., Näschen K., Tibanyendela N., Kwesiga, J., Evers, M. (2021). Dynamics of Human–Water Interactions in the Kilombero Valley, Tanzania: Insights from Farmers’ Aspirations and Decisions in an Uncertain Environment. The European Journal of Development Research 33: 980–999.

Gbedevi, K. M., Boukar, O., Ishikawa, H., Abe, A., Ongom, P. O., Unachukwu, N., Rabbi, I. and Fatokun, C. (2021). Genetic diversity and population structure of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] germplasm collected from Togo based on DArT markers. Genes 12 (1451): 1– 14.

Ichami, S.M., Karuku, G.N., Sila, A., Ayuke, F.O., Shepherd, K.D. 2022. Spatial approach for diagnosis of yield-limiting nutrients in smallholder agroecosystem landscape using population-based farm survey data. PLoS ONE 17(2): e0262754.

Takoutsing, B., Heuvelink, G.B.M., Stoorvogel, J.J., Shepherd, K.D. & Aynekulu, E. 2022. Accounting for analytical and proximal soil sensing errors in digital soil mapping.

European Journal of Soil Science 73: e13226.

Prout, J.M., Shepherd, K.D., McGrath, S.P., Kirk, GJD, Hassall, K.L. & Haefele, S.M. 2022. Changes in organic carbon to clay ratios in different soils and land uses in England and Wales over time. Scientific Reports 12: 5162.

Nguli, M., Gatari, M.J., Shepherd, K., Njenga, L., & Boman, J. Assessment of essential micronutrient levels in common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Kenya by total reflection X-ray fluorescence. X-ray Spectrometry 2022: 1-6.

Miller, M.A.E., Shepherd, K.D., Kisitu, B., Collinson, J. 2021. iSDAsoil: The first continent-scale soil property map at 30 m resolution provides a soil information revolution for Africa. PL O S Biol__ogy 19: e3001441.

Shepherd, K.D., Ferguson, R., Hoover, D., van Egmond, F., Sanderman, J., & Ge, Y. 2022.

A global soil spectral calibration library and estimation service. Soil Security 7: 100061.

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